What are the moderate climates
Temperate zones are the climatic zones between the subtropics and the polar circles. Temperate zones have distinct seasons and exist in the northern and southern hemispheres. The climate ranges from a mild maritime climate, which is characterized by low temperature fluctuations and large amounts of precipitation, to the continental climate, which is characterized by high temperature fluctuations and relative dryness (aridity). Meteorologically, most of the temperate zone is described by the west wind zone.
1 Definition of the climatic zones in the temperate zone
The temperate zone is usually divided into three different sub-regions:
- the warm temperate,
- cool temperate and
- the cold temperate zone.
The annual mean is around 8 degrees Celsius.
The temperate zone, in which Germany is also located, is located between the cold zone and the subtropics. There are mainly deciduous forests here. In summer the temperature can rise above 30 ° C, while in winter it can drop below freezing point. In this case the precipitation consists of snow. Autumn is usually the rainiest season, with an average temperature of around 8 degrees Celsius. In spring, the average temperature is usually more than 10 degrees Celsius a day.
2 Warm temperate zone
There are two different definitions for the warm temperate zone:
- Areas with a mean temperature in the warmest month over 20 degrees Celsius
- Areas with a mean temperature in the warmest month over 10 degrees Celsius, in the coldest month over 0 degrees Celsius.
As a demarcation to the subtropics, the limit of the annual mean temperature of 20 degrees Celsius is usually mentioned; everything below it belongs to the temperate zone or the cold zone.
3 Cold temperate zone
This zone includes all areas that have an annual mean temperature of below 0 degrees, but at the same time a mean temperature in the warmest month of over 10 degrees Celsius. All areas with a mean temperature of less than 10 degrees Celsius in the warmest month belong to the cold zone by definition.
The vegetation in the temperate zones consists mainly of coniferous forests, mixed and deciduous forests, but towards the middle of the continents one can also find grass steppes and sometimes even semi-deserts and deserts.
There is usually sufficient precipitation all year round, with precipitation decreasing from west to east due to increasing continentality. However, this rainfall is not sufficient for intensive grain cultivation. This requires additional watering.
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